Brain Defense Research Citations
Lesson 1: Be Screen Safe!
The brain can get hijacked by the chemicals that technology causes to be released
- Haynes, Trevor. (2018, May 1). Dopamine, Smartphones & You: A battle for your time. Retrieved March 18, 2020, from http://sitn.hms.harvard.edu/flash/2018/dopamine-smartphones-battle-time/
- Firth, J., Torous, J., Stubbs, B., Firth, J.A., Steiner, G.Z., Smith, L., ... & Sarris, J. (2019). The “online brain”: How the Internet may be changing our cognition. World Psychiatry, 18, 119–129.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31059635
- Bernadka Dubicka, Jennifer Martin, Joseph Firth. (2019). Editorial: Screen time, social media and developing brains: a cause for good or corrupting young minds? Child and Adolescent Mental Health 24, No. 3, 2019, pp. 203–204. doi:10.1111/camh.12346.https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/camh.12346
Sleep helps your brain process the information it took in throughout the day
- Liman, Stacy. (2020, Jan 24). Boost Brain Health: How Sleep Impacts Your Brain Functions. Retrieved March 18, 2020,https://amerisleep.com/blog/sleep-impacts-brain-health/
- Hale, Lauren, Guan, Stanford. (2015). Screen time and sleep among school-aged children and adolescents: A systematic literature review.Sleep Medicine ReviewsVolume 21, June 2015, Pages 50-58.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2014.07.007.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6502424/
How much sleep do children need?
- National Sleep Foundation. How Much Sleep Do Babies and Kids Need? Retrieved March 17, 2020, fromhttps://www.sleepfoundation.org/excessive-sleepiness/support/how-much-sleep-do-babies-and-kids-need
- Walsh, Jeremy J., Barnes, Joel D., Cameron, Jameason D., Goldfield, Gary S., Chaput, Jean-Philippe, Gunnell, Katie E., Ledoux, Andree-Anne, Zemek, Roger L., Tremblay, Mark S. (2018). Association between 24 hour movement behaviours and global cognition in US children: a cross-sectional observational study. The Lancet: Child and Adolescent Health, Vol. 2, Issue 11, P 783-791.https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(18)30278-5.https://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lanchi/PIIS2352-4642(18)30278-5.pdf
Recommendation to turn screens off 30 minutes before bedtime
- National Sleep Foundation. Challenging Ways Technology Affects Your Sleep. (n.d.). Retrieved March 16, 2020, fromhttps://www.sleep.org/articles/ways-technology-affects-sleep/
- Hale, Lauren, Guan, Stanford. (2015). Screen time and sleep among school-aged children and adolescents: A systematic literature review. Sleep Medicine Reviews Volume 21, June 2015, Pages 50-58.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2014.07.007.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4437561/
Recommendation to keep discretionary screen time under 2 hours/day
- Radcliffe, S. (2018, October 2). More Than 2 Hours of Screen Time May Affect Kids’ Brains. Retrieved March 16, 2020, fromhttps://www.healthline.com/health-news/more-than-2-hours-of-screen-time-can-hurt-kids-brains
- Walsh, Jeremy J., Barnes, Joel D., Cameron, Jameason D., Goldfield, Gary S., Chaput, Jean-Philippe, Gunnell, Katie E., Ledoux, Andree-Anne, Zemek, Roger L., Tremblay, Mark S. (2018). Association between 24 hour movement behaviours and global cognition in US children: a cross-sectional observational study. The Lancet: Child and Adolescent Health, Vol. 2, Issue 11, P 783-791.https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(18)30278-5.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4437561/
Lesson 2: Be Brain Healthy!
Addiction is a disease of the brain.
- Volkow, Nora D. M.D., et. al. (2016, Jan 28). Neurobiologic Advances from the Brain Disease Model of Addiction. The New England Journal of Medicine 2016; 374: 363-371. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra1511480
- Asam.org. 2020. What is the definition of addiction? American Society of Addiction Medicine [Accessed 15 April 2020]. “Addiction is a treatable, chronic medical disease involving complex interactions among brain circuits, genetics, the environment, and an individual’s life experiences. People with addiction use substances or engage in behaviors that become compulsive and often continue despite harmful consequences. Prevention efforts and treatment approaches for addiction are generally as successful as those for other chronic diseases.”
Pornography use can become an addiction.
- Voon V, Mole TB, Banca P, Porter L, Morris L, Mitchell S, et al. (2014) Neural Correlates of Sexual Cue Reactivity in Individuals with and without Compulsive Sexual Behaviours. PLoS ONE 9(7): e102419.https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102419.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4094516/
The formation of habits and addictions
- Smith, K. S., & Graybiel, A. M. (2016). Habit formation. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience, 18(1), 33–43.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4826769/
Thinking brain and feeling brain roles
- Neuroskills.com. Frontal lobes. Centre for neuro skills. Accessed 20 April, 2020.https://www.neuroskills.com/brain-injury/frontal-lobes/
- LaLumiere, Ryan T. (26 March 2014). Optogenetic dissection of amygdala functioning. Behavioral Neuroscience.https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00107.
Lesson 3: Be Brain Smart!
Chemicals are released upon viewing pornography.
- Your Brain on Porn, “Brain Studies on Porn Users,” (2014)http://yourbrainonporn.com/brain-scanstudies-porn-users(accessed March 2020). Pornography changes the brain and shrinks the prefrontal cortex.
- Donald L. Hilton, Jr., and Clark Watts. Pornography Addiction: A Neuroscience Perspective. Surgical Neurology International 2, no. 19 (2011).https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3050060/
- Schmidt, Casper, et al. Compulsive Sexual Behavior: Prefrontal and Limbic Volume and Interactions. Human Brain Mapping 38, no. 3 (October 27, 2016): 1182-190, doi:10.1002/hbm.23447https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5324617/
Pornography leads to objectification of other people.
- Wright, Paul J., Tokunaga, Robert S. Men’s Objectifying Media Consumption, Objectification of Women, and Attitudes Supportive of Violence against Women. Archives of Sexual Behavior 45, no. 4 (2016): 955–64.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26585169
- Peter, Jochen, Valkenburg, Patti. Adolescent’s Exposure to a Sexualized Media Environment and Their Notions of Women as Sex Objects. Sex Roles 56 (2007): 381-395.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11199-006-9176-y
Lesson 4: Be Brain Strong!
Physical exercise as a means of changing the brain
- Ploughman, Michelle. 5 Feb 2008. Exercise is brain food: The effects of physical activity on cognitive function. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 11, 3, 236-240.https://doi.org/10.1080/17518420801997007
Labeling emotions helps prefrontal cortex gain control
- Moyal, Natali, Henik, Avishai, Anholt, Gideon E. (2014). Cognitive strategies to regulate emotions—current evidence and future directions. Frontiers in Psychology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.01019https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.01019/full
Lesson 5: Be Screen Responsible!
Digital Citizenship in schools
- Jones, L. M., & Mitchell, K. J. (2016). Defining and measuring youth digital citizenship. New Media & Society, 18(9), 2063–2079.https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444815577797
- Ribble, Mike. (28 Jan 2020). Digital citizenship is more important than ever. Iste.org. Accessed 22 April 2020.https://www.iste.org/explore/digital-citizenship-more-important-ever
- Romney, Byrin. (16 June 2020). Executive Summary of Screens, Teens, and Porn Scenes: Legislative approaches to protecting youth from exposure to pornography. Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment and Technology Law.http://www.jetlaw.org/2020/06/16/byrinromney/
Cyberbully incidents in schools
- Stopbullying.gov. Tips for Teachers: Warning Signs a Child Is Being Cyberbullied or Is Cyberbullying. Stopbullying.gov. Accessed 22 April 2020.https://www.stopbullying.gov/cyberbullying/tips-for-teachers
Cyberbullying in social media apps/accounts/video games.
- Pew Research Center. (2018) A Majority of Teens Have Experienced Some Form of Cyberbullying. Pew Research Center, Washington D.C. Accessed 20 April 2020.https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2018/09/27/a-majority-of-teens-have-experienced-some-form-of-cyberbullying/
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